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Saturday, November 4, 2017

Hemorrhoid or Piles Disease

 Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal. In their normal state, they are cushions that help with stool control. They become a disease when swollen or inflamed; the unqualified term "hemorrhoid" is often used to refer to the disease. The signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids depend on the type present. Internal hemorrhoids are usually present with painless, bright red rectal bleeding when defecating. External hemorrhoids often result in pain and swelling in the area of the anus. If bleeding occurs it is usually darker. Symptoms frequently get better after a few days. A skin tag may remain after the healing of an external hemorrhoid. While the exact cause of hemorrhoids remains unknown, a number of factors which increase pressure in the abdomen are believed to be involved. This may include constipation, diarrhea and sitting on the toilet for a long time. Hemorrhoids are also more common during pregnancy. Diagnosis is made by looking at the area. Many people incorrectly refer to any symptom occurring around the anal area as "hemorrhoids" and serious causes of the symptoms should be ruled out. Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy is reasonable to confirm the diagnosis and rule out more serious causes. Often, no specific treatment is needed. Initial measures consist of increasing fiber intake, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, NSAIDs to help with pain, and rest. Medicated creams may be applied to the area, but their effectiveness is poorly supported by evidence. A number of minor procedures may be performed if symptoms are severe or do not improve with conservative management. Surgery is reserved for those who fail to improve following these measures. Approximately 50% to 66% of people have problems with hemorrhoids at some point in their lives. Males and females are both affected with about equal frequency. Hemorrhoids affect people most often between 45 and 65 years of age. It is more common among the wealthy. Outcomes are usually good.The first known mention of the disease is from a 1700 BC Egyptian papyrus.
In about 40% of people with pathological hemorrhoids, there are no significant symptoms. Internal and external hemorrhoids may present differently; however, many people may have a combination of the two. Bleeding enough to cause anemia is rare, and life-threatening bleeding is even more uncommon. Many people feel embarrassed when facing the problem and often seek medical care only when the case is advanced
If not thrombosed, external hemorrhoids may cause few problems. However, when thrombosed, hemorrhoids may be very painful. Nevertheless, this pain typically resolves in two to three days. The swelling may, however, take a few weeks to disappear. A skin tag may remain after healing. If hemorrhoids are large and cause issues with hygiene, they may produce irritation of the surrounding skin, and thus itchiness around the anus.
Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless, bright red rectal bleeding during or following a bowel movement. The blood typically covers the stool (a condition known as hematochezia), is on the toilet paper, or drips into the toilet bowl. The stool itself is usually normally colored. Other symptoms may include mucous discharge, a perianal mass if they prolapse through the anus, itchiness, and fecal incontinence. Internal hemorrhoids are usually only painful if they become thrombosed or necrotic.
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